FATCA stands for the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA). It was introduced in October 2009 and signed into law in March 2010 as part of Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment (HIRE) Act.
FATCA is designed to prevent tax-evasion by U.S. citizens or residents holding foreign accounts or offshore investments. Under the new FATCA regulations, foreign financial institutions (FFIs) must identify U.S. account holders as well as entities under U.S. control (i.e. U.S. persons having a substantial ownership interest in the entity) and provide the IRS with information on their assets, income payments and trade flows during the fiscal year. FATCA regulations generally become effective on or about July 1, 2014.